Nevada electricity generation mix from 2001 to 2017, by the New York Times. The graph below shows the estimate of the life cycle emissions of a Model 3 when the battery was produced in Asia – where much of the electricity is generated from coal – as is the case with Nissan Leaf batteries. The long-range 75kWh model is used for this analysis to mimic the ifo approach; Emissions from the production of batteries from the average 50kWh model would be about one-third lower. The materials used in electric cars are different from those used in conventional vehicles. This could pose new demands on the global supply chain, for example. B growing demand for battery components such as nickel and cobalt. Battery chemistry may need to adapt, or perhaps new transport models may emerge to solve critical supply problems. The transition also requires a new infrastructure for vehicle loading. None of these obstacles is insurmountable, so it is possible that by 2050, sales of passenger cars will be largely electric. There are also great uncertainties about emissions from the production of electric vehicles, with different studies producing very different figures.
As battery prices fall and automakers begin to include larger batteries with longer ranges, emissions from battery production may have a greater impact on the climate benefits of electric vehicles. India, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Poland and Bulgaria are exceptions for which electric vehicles need electricity from coal-fired power plants, he said. A number of studies break down emissions in the mining industry, refining and other off-site material production, as well as the actual battery manufacturing process. They generally find that about half of life cycle emissions are due to off-site material production and half to electricity used. This is presented in the table below, taken from the 2017 LVI report, which breaks down life cycle emissions by components and production level. This study examines the current mix of electricity generation, which is likely to become less carbon intensive over the life of vehicles in service today. However, the authors caution that the link between average emission reductions and marginal emission reductions is not always clear. Since marginal emissions come primarily from fossil fuel facilities, emission reductions for electric vehicle loading will occur primarily when gas supersedes coal at the margin or when the widespread introduction of electric vehicles requires the introduction of new low-carbon power generation facilities to meet demand.